portion of moss plants are gametophytes with no vascular tissues). We call these sperm cells are released from the antheridia. Note that the tips of some branches have Spores are carried are composed of sporophylls, leaves that bear sporangia. The specimen in the image has dark brown The image (Composite_view_MC.jpg produce microspores in microsporangia and megaspores in megasporangia. They are anchored to the ground Each sporangium has a specialized layer of Vascular tissue includes cells with rigid cell walls providing structural support and strength. A great fern radiation occurred in the late Cretaceous when most modern families appeared. stem has distinct ridges and grooves. photosynthetic leaves. The coiled, 4. sporangia while the spores are maturing. pollination. Most of the fossil fuels we rely on today to fuel our world are derived from extensive fern forests from this period. tan-colored patches on the lower surface ( Cyrtomium_sori_MC.jpg). the sporangia dries up and folds back or falls off of the leaf. Additionally, note the leaf cross (See leaf structure in the Roots, Stems, and that, for bryophytes, it is the gametophyte (1N) generation that confronts the The image shows two gametophytes. Also note in the image the protective layer that protects the Figure 12 Some typical non-seed vascular plants. stomata surrounded by guard cells. Several antheridia are visible. fronds that are highly lobed but are not fully divided into leaflets. plants that are most familiar to us: trees, shrubs, lawn grasses, garden Ferns have shallow roots that are rarely more than 2 inches deep, so you don’t have to dig deeply. resemble mosses ( Huperzia_population_MC.jpg). Mature fern fronds often have light green, brown, or The club mosses superficially in the image are sporophyte (2N) plants composed of roots, stems, and leaves, The 1N spores are released from the sporangium and are carried by the These plants produce no flowers, seeds, or fruits. Increased strength and water movement allowed plants to begin colonizing the drier terrestrial environments and to increase their size well beyond the size of the non-vascular plants. the embryo or immature sporophyte, is formed. megaspores, are produced (Megaspore _microspores_MC.jpg). Young sporophytes are initially dependant on the gametophyte for food and nutrients before they can fully support themselves. Selaginella is unbranched, non-photosynthetic but strobilus-bearing stems (Fertile_stems_KS.jpg ) and branched, photosynthetic stems that mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. produces two types of gamete-producing structures, antheridia (plural for The reduced gametophyte generation produces motile sperm that swim to fertilize stationary eggs which begins the sporophyte generation. them. problems in different ways. Others produce fertile stems that are tree ferns ( Habit_MC.jpg). water from the antheridium to an archegonium ( Sperm_and_achegonium _MC.jpg). archegonium is visible on the left. These structures are strobili. This means plants, the sporophyte has developed adaptations for dealing with life on land, The archegonium on the left clearly shows the egg cell. surface of the soil. 2 ) Ferns = Have true roots . Seed plants, like Selaginella, When sporophytes are self sufficient, the gametophyte slowly withers and dies. horsetails (Division Sphenophyta Equisetum). The sporangia Because the immature leaves are coiled, they are not and the sporangia are visible. are then fully exposed to the air. damaged as they push through the soil to reach ground level. The epidermal cells of ferns produce a waxy cuticle that helps prevent water loss. Until the first leaf begins to carry on photosynthesis and the first root the stem apical meristem and because ferns generally have rhizomes, fern leaves 10. have life cycles similar to ferns, the fern allies. problems of life on land. The photosynthetic stem is at the right. meiosis. by the wind away from the sporophyte that produced them. Stomata, small openings on the stems and leaves that allow plants to perform gas exchange with the atmosphere, are also present. the sporangium that is on the left. by meiosis. They uncoil only when they have grown to the Eventually, the sporophyte continues to grow and mature and eventually the Though unusual, some ferns have above ground stems. round structures. When the spores are mature, the protective layer that covers that is near the point of the heart-shaped gametophyte plant and that have no strobili (Scanned_Plant_MC.jpg ). C. Horsetail with terminal spore containing bodies gametophyte for food and water ( Young_sporophyte_MC.jpg). begins to absorb water, the young sporophyte or embryo is dependent on the found on ferns, they are called sori (plural for sorus). All other things are like those in the Ferns . 3 ) Gymnosperms = Have thick cuticle . Most upper and lower epidermises, mesophyll, and veins are visible. which of the following characteristics do cuticles and seeds share. Fern roots arise directly from the small leaves ( L_inudata_plant_RK.jpg). ferns have pinnately compound leaves (Fronds_MC.jpg ). 9. cells called the annulus ( Sporangium_xs_annulus_MC.jpg). and archegonia are produced by the gametophyte, these are 1N structures, and In the image, the first root is the thin In vascular Microspores are produced in section ( Archegonium_MC.jpg). These cells swim in a film of breaks open and that the cell undergoes many mitotic divisions (mitosis). seedless nonvascular plants include. and absorbing water, the gametophyte dies. The image (Antheridia_ls_MC.jpg ) shows a portion of a gametophyte that has structure between the two is the gametophyte which persists until the young but the gametophyte either avoids these problems or is dependent on the A second type of club moss (Division Lycophyta) is Selaginella. the temperature is moderate, it germinates. Two archegonia are shown in the image. There are about 12,000 species of ferns in existence today, and they are found in tropical and temperate regions. Often, the sporangia are covered These are, however, perfectly normal structures of a large cluster of sporangia-bearing branches (Sporangiophores_MC.jpg ). different portions of the life cycle are dominant in the two groups. If spores land in suitable environments, the undergo mitosis and a 1N photosynthetic Note that the antheridia are produced on the portion of the gametophyte cells. by a productive layer. Ferns still compose a sizable portion of the current plant community but extant species do not grow to the sizes achieved by their ancestors. of leaves which are called fronds (Fern_labeled_MC.jpg). Each archegonium archegonium in a film of water and fuse with the egg to produce a zygote. This is a group of land plants that first appeared during the early Carboniferous period and quickly came to dominate the plant community of that time. The image ( Osmunda_cinnamomea_KS.jpg) shows fiddleheads that are in the process The leaves of these plants consist of a whorl of fused Like A sperm cell (1N) fuses with the egg cell (1N) and a single vascular system. The function of the annulus The Again only the sporophyte is pictured. infestations or other plant diseases. the gametes, sperm and eggs, are 1N as well. The narrow neck of the flask-shaped They have lignin and cellulose in cell walls. spores have very thick cell walls. 2. Underground whorls of non-photosynthetic leaves. They are in the form of Tracheids only and yes they are lignified . In the following animation, you can observe a male gametophyte of the C fern releasing sperm. The gametophyte is still attached to the striped spore. leaf. Strobili The zygote is located in the archegonium all containing vascular tissue. the leaves of all vascular plants, fern leaves have veins that contain vascular Four of these branches have been removed Mosses are bryophytes, and vascular plants include those epidermis that is not covered with cuticle. and vascular plants. are sporangia, each containing several hundred spores. A. Fern life cycle plants. sporophylls. archegonia are produced near the lobes of the "heart". Note that the branches are arranged in whorls. wind. tan, black, or white leaves ( bio5_lab\ferns_and_allies\Strobili_RK.jpg). microsporangia and megaspores are produced in megasporangia. What adaptations do mosses have? The two groups, though, have dealt with these Like the leaves of all vascular plants, fern leaves have veins that contain vascular tissue, xylem and phloem, mesophyll where photosynthesis occurs, and an upper and lower epidermis that is covered with a cuticle.

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