For security, use of Google's reCAPTCHA service is required which is subject to the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. The Acharya or Achaju (alternatively Karmacharya, Guruwacharya) hold prominent and respected position within the Newar society. They have become major decision makers in the bureaucracy of Nepal has become crystal clear. There is an observable reaction to this among certain Khas Brahmin and Chhetri groups, seeking to prevent group-based rights from becoming an important factor in the country that earlier had a political system associated with group-based discrimination. First introduced in the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. For the higher Parbatiya castes (Bahuns and Chetris), the higher twice-born Hindu castes (Brahmans, Chatharīya and Pañcthariya) exist in a kind of “separate but parallel” status with respect to the high caste Parbatiya. Historically, Newars in general divided non-Newar Pahade (hill) Nepalis into two groups: Sae(n) and Khae(n). This general term refers in some contexts only to the upper-status divisions of the western Khas group, the Brahmans (Khae(n) Bahun) and the Khae(n) Chhetri) but in other contexts also may include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kami (blacksmiths), Damai (tailors), Sarki (shoemakers and leatherworkers). Rajopadhyaya and higher Shrestha clans also try to avoid “Sa-Gotra” marriages; marrying someone of the same gotra. Majority population in Lalitpur, Bungamati, Kirtipur. It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal. people's perception of their own social situation has more to do with geography and objective social class, than with their association with the groups that the state has based its internal social policy on. Jyapu literally means “competent worker” in the Nepal Bhasa language and are numerically the largest group of Newar community. Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. Endogamy carves out ethnic groups in Nepal. Referred to as ‘Dhyo Brahman'(God Brahmin) or colloquially as ‘Dhyo Baje'(God Grandfather), these Brahmins with surnames Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, among others, serve as family priest (purohit) primarily to the Hindu Srēṣṭha clans. are other myriads of non-Jyapu occupational castes who perform highly specialized hereditary occupations. Exclusive religious preference disappears from the next occupational caste which consists of people who form the majority population among the Newars – the farmers and agriculturalists – who are collectively called the Jyapu. Malla Khacarā, Thaku, Lawatt, etc. Also listed is the approximate percentages [21] of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes – agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc. The division into Hindu and Buddhist castes has not been regarded by Newars as a serious cleavage, since both groups share the same basic values and social practices and are in close accord in their underlying religious philosophy. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. How Do Different People Assess Social Change In Nepal? Today, Jyapus have succeeded in placing themselves at the centre of Newar society, thanks partly to the growing popularity of the Indigenous adivasi discourse. The Legal Code “Muluki Ain” promulgated in January 1854 A.D. classified the entire Newar community—irrespective of its internal stratification—as an “enslavable alcohol-drinking caste.”. The Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854. The Brahmins were like all other specialized service providers, except that they were considered higher to others in ritual purity. Copyright ©, 2019. The population of Newars is around 5%, but its occupancy in Civil Service is more than one-thirds (33.2%), the population of Khas-Chhetris constitutes 17.6% but its participation is mere 14.7%. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. (2) Urāy or Udās, consists of nine main subgroups, viz Tuladhar, Bania, Kansakar, Tamrakar, Sthapit, Shikhrakar, Selalik, Sindurākār etc. The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat. Similarly, Newar untouchables and the clearly water-unacceptable but touchable groups (such as Naye and Jogi) are also untouchable or water-unacceptable to the Partya Brahmans and Chetris. [10][11][note 1][12], Teej celebrated by women of Khas community, Banras/Shakya Buddhist priests of Newar group, Children from isolated Danuwar ethnolinguistic group, Limbus playing traditional chyabrung, Ilam, Nepal, Senior offering Dashain Tika; a feature of Khas Parbattia community, Khas man of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India (1868-1875), List of ethnic caste-groups in Nepal by population, Pages 191/192 of the total pdf or pages 156/157 in the scanned material shows Nepalese castes/ethnic groups, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), "Economic and social structures that may explain the recent conflicts in the Terai of Nepal", "Population Monograph of Nepal Volume II (Social Demography)",, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 19:35. Terai occupational castes – Dhobi, Halkhor, Chamar, Dushad, Dom, Musahars, etc. Furthermore, other non-Mongoloid hill groups who may be of dubious historical Khas connections, such as the Gaine, are included as Khae(n). Terai and Newar Brahmins and Kshatriyas were officially placed below their Khas equivalents. All rights reserved. Today, they picture themselves as the most genuine Newars, the epitome of their society and culture. Recent research has also shown that when it comes to Nepali people's impressions of social change, "Poverty, Human Resources and Region" explain more of the variation than "Ethnicity, Caste or Religious belonging" – i.e. They succeeded in producing the required social credentials to prove that the Mallas and Chathari tharghar (families of noble extraction) alone were “pure” Shresthas. Brahmin and Chhetri women have experienced less social and economic mobility compared to Newari women. Paper presented at National Dialogue Conference on ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, Kathmandu, 19–20 January 2005. [3] The law also comprised Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities). In 2001 the CBS recorded 43 caste-origin Hindu groups in the Madhesh. (1) Rājopādhyāya Brahmins are on top of the Hindu Newar social hierarchy. Although believed to be the true descendants of the various original settlers of the Kathmandu Valley – Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas, among others, the Jyapus were turned into a lower caste category during the Malla period. The Rajopadhyayas speak Newari language and have been the purohitas and gurus of the Malla kings. The Tirhute Brahmins came to the Valley in the late Malla period and also during the early Shah period. 24,399, Adivasi Janajatis ranks third with an average income of Rs. For most Newars, partners must belong to different descent-group lineages within the same caste. The groups are delineated using language, ethnic identity or the caste system in Nepal. – métiers needed in the daily lives of the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs. 38,193. Similarly, the Buddhamargi castes can be broadly divided into four major groups. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. [18] The name ‘Uray’ is said to have been derived from the Sanskrit term “upāsaka” meaning “devout layman”. Of these four groups the first two—the Gubhaju-Bare group and the Uray group—form the core of the Buddhamargi Newars. [2], The social structure of the caste-origin Madhesi Hindu groups is complex, reflecting four varna groups with distinct hierarchical structure within them. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. Khas upper castes come next with an average income of Rs. They have provided significant contribution to Nepali society and have been seen as the backbone of Newar community. It was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers. Specifically, Brahmin and Chhetri (Indo-Aryan) have advantages. They had a long history and strong internal social organization. MOPE (2002). For Newar Brahmans, Partya or Khae Brahmans and Chetris are only water-acceptable. The Bajracharyas, who belong to the first group, are placed at the top of the hierarchy among the Buddhamargi Newars. If you agree to these terms, please click here. Although Newars are low in numbers, their urban living habitat gives them a competitive advantage. They were, of course, not admitted in the army till 1951 A.D. –the year when the festival of Indra Jatra discontinued to be celebrated as “the Victory Day”—commemorating the conquest of the valley by the Gorkhali army. Newar population in Nepal is almost 1.3 million which accounts almost 5.5% of total population of Nepal. The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. They are the most dominant Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy as well as the traditional land-owning and mercantile families. Nepal Population Report, 2002. [4][5][6][7][8], Bahun and Chhetri castes form the historical topmost state elites' circle with the significant majority of leadership in executive, legislative, judicial, constitutional, local administrative bodies, bureaucracy, political parties and social organizations.

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