Unlike lambeosaurines, the crests are made up completely of the nasal bone. Its feeding range would have extended from the ground to about 4 m (13 ft) above. It is not clear which was most significant at what times in the evolution of the crest and its internal nasal passages. [8] Because of its possession of the two above features, it has often been speculated that it was a female of P. walkeri or P. tubicen, which were males,[14][18] although P. tubicen lived approximately a million years later. "The Kirtlandian land-vertebrate "age"–faunal composition, temporal position and biostratigraphic correlation in the nonmarine Upper Cretaceous of western North America." It was an herbivore that walked both as a biped and as a quadruped. The following cladogram of hadrosaurid relationships was published in 2013 by Alberto Prieto-Márquez et al. If, as is commonly illustrated, a skin frill extended from the crest to the neck or back, the proposed visual display would have been even showier. [33], Other proposals were more physical in nature. Its teeth were continually being replaced; they were packed into dental batteries containing hundreds of teeth, only a relative handful of which were in use at any time. Instead, more abundant remains from Asia have provided more data. [39] This means that the crest could have been used for species recognition, as a warning signal, and for other, non-sexual uses. [49][50] During the Late Cretaceous period, the site of the Kaiparowits Formation was located near the western shore of the Western Interior Seaway, a large inland sea that split North America into two landmasses, Laramidia to the west and Appalachia to the east. A variety of early mammals were present including multituberculates, marsupials, and insectivorans. [7] The neural spines of the vertebrae were tall, as was common in lambeosaurines;[22] tallest over the hips, they increased the height of the back. Furthermore, the hadrosaurid lagena is elongate like a crocodilian's, indicating that the auditory portion of the inner ear was well-developed. Even though no complete skull of the intermediate age between RAM 14000 and adult Parasaurolophus has been found yet, a partial braincase of about the right size is known. [12] In 2014, the species was reassigned to a new genus, Augustynolophus. The skeleton shows a v-shaped gap or notch in the vertebrae at the base of the neck. [4] One other possibility, is that during preparation, the specimen was damaged, creating the possible pathology. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. New York, New York. [7] It was a rare constituent of this fauna. [13], Barnum Brown, who described the first specimens, put it in its own subfamily in "Trachodontidae" (=Hadrosauridae), the Saurolophinae. [16]  In 2013 it was discovered that Edmontosaurus did have a fleshy crest on its head, similar to a rooster's comb, however it still did not resemble Ducky's crest. In 2010, the subfamily Saurolophinae was brought back into use because Hadrosaurus appears to have branched off prior to the "hadrosaurine"–lambeosaurine split. [3] It is based on ROM 768, a skull and partial skeleton missing most of the tail and the hind legs below the knees, which was found by a field party from the University of Toronto in 1920 near Sand Creek along the Red Deer River in Alberta, Canada. [36], Most of these hypotheses have been discredited or rejected. Initial remains were not promising; a partial fragmentary ischium from Heilongjiang, China, that Riabinin named S. Saurolophus (/sɔːˈrɒləfəs/; meaning "lizard crest") is a genus of large saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs that lived about 70.0–66 million years ago,[1] in the Late Cretaceous of North America and Asia; it is one of the few genera of dinosaurs known from multiple continents. Parasaurolophus (/ˌpærəsɔːˈrɒləfəs, -ˌsɔːrəˈloʊfəs/; meaning "near crested lizard" in reference to Saurolophus) is a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur that lived in what is now North America and possibly Asia during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 76.5–73 million years ago. tubicen. and Thescelus hemispherica. [27] Unlike other Mongolian formations like the well-known Djadochta Formation that includes Velociraptor and Protoceratops, the Nemegt is interpreted as being well-watered, like the Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta. It was found in rocks of early Maastrichtian age, in the Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation (then known as the Edmonton Formation) near Tolman Ferry on the Red Deer River in Alberta. This misalign ment is most likely brought on by the broadness of the character's mouth, as (possibly) the most well-noted feature of Edmontosaurus is its broad bill. 7-29 in Lucas, S. G. and Sullivan, R.M. [27], Many hypotheses have been advanced as to what functions the cranial crest of Parasaurolophus performed, but most have been discredited. [20] Saurolophus, as the name suggests, is a saurolophine, as it has a saurolophine pelvis and a (largely) solid crest. Unidentified taxa are known, including the crurotarsan ?Leidyosuchus,[44] and the theropods ?Struthiomimus, Troodontidae and Tyrannosauridae. [18], Computer modeling of a well-preserved specimen of P. tubicen, with more complex air passages than those of P. walkeri, has allowed the reconstruction of the possible sound its crest produced. The character is drawn with a wide bill and a short, upright, pointed cranial crest, as are her siblings and her mother and father. A large amount of material and data supports the hypothesis that the large, tubular crest of Parasaurolophus was a resonating chamber. However, while the character is, as mentioned above, drawn with a long head-crest, which Edmontosaurus, or "Anatosaurus" is not believed to have had.

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