Metals degas at these temperatures, and immediately condense into particulate form [Hinkley, 1991]. Air emissions from products in use are negligible, but water emissions from urban runoff, household piping, and electricity production can be roughly approximated [Nriagu and Pacyna, 1988; Georgopoulos et al., 2001]. For instance, copper in the crust was divided between oceanic and continental crust, but not among upper, middle, and lower crust. We choose 25 ppm Cu as an average estimate to calculate the stock of copper in the mantle. Evidence suggests that virtually all the copper scrap produced at this stage is recycled, resulting in a recursive, internal flow of copper back into metal fabrication and manufacturing. [51] The confidence intervals for the calculations are presented in Table 2 on the basis of propagation of the uncertainty ranges in the underlying data. Global sea‐salt aerosol and its budgets, Production residues in copper technological cycles, Elements and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludges of large cities in the United States, Industrial age anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals into the pedosphere, An analysis of global fertilizer application rates for major crops, Distribution of metals between particulate and gaseous forms in a volcanic plume, Metal emissions from Kilauea, and a suggested revision of the estimated worldwide metal output by quiescent degassing of volcanoes, Changes in natural lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium concentrations in central Greenland ice from 8250 to 149100 years ago: Their association with climatic changes and resultant variations of dominant source contributions, Chemical fate of arsenic and other metals in groundwater of Bangladesh: Experimental measurement and chemical equilibrium model, Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate, Contemporary anthropogenic silver cycle: A multilevel analysis, The future of the red metal: Scenario analysis and implications for policy, Extraterrestrial accretion from the GISP2 ice core, Elemental cycles: A status report on human or natural dominance, Atmospheric trace metals: Global cycles and assessment of man's impact, Distribution patterns of the elements in the ocean—A synthesis, Survey of toxicants and nutrients in composted waste materials, Domestic combustion of biomass fuels in developing countries: A major source of atmospheric pollutants, Past and present of sediment and carbon biogeochemical cycling models, Elemental mass‐balance of material carried by major world rivers, The global insignificance of telluric input of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and zn) to ocean margins, Preliminary assessment of the distributions of some trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in a pristine aquatic environment—The Lena River estuary (Russia), Sediments and soils: Chemistry and abundances, Rock Physics and Phase Relations: A Handbook of Physical Constants, Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates, Heavy‐metal balances, part II: Management of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in European agro‐ecosystems, Applications of dynamic balances in agricultural systems, The Moon: Composition determined by nebular processes, National survey of elements and other constituents in municipal sewage sludges, A fresh look at element distribution in the North Pacific, Copper in the Environment, vol.

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