Some early sources state that Muawiya II abdicated before his death. [20] It also helped crystallize opposition to Yazid into an anti-Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations,[21] and contributed to the development of Shi'ite identity. On the way to Mecca, Imam Husayn met Abdullah ibn Mutee’ who inquired as to where the Imam (a.s.) was going. Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance. Imam Husayn (a.s.) was informed that under Amr ibn Sa’d ibn al-Aas, Yazid had dispatched a division of mercenaries with specific instructions to kill him wherever he might be found.4 Under pressure from Yazid, his governor al-Waleed sent his men to Imam Husayn’s house in the night when the Imam had gone to visit the Prophet’s tomb. 680–683). [25] They killed Ibn al-Muhallab and routed his army near Kufa on 24 August 720. Yazid ordered his hated agents to go as soon as possible to the scene of the demonstrations: they were to quell the demonstrators and to stop the cry of those seeking truth and justice from reaching the ears of the rest of the Muslims. However, in 676, Muawiya nominated Yazid as his heir. [1], In Ifriqiya, the caliph's governor Yazid ibn Abi Muslim, himself a mawlā from Iraq and a protégé of al-Hajjaj, was assassinated by his Berber guard in 720, shortly after his appointment, for attempting to reinstate the jizya. Umayyad people suggested him to hold a council for the selection of the next caliph as was practiced by 'Umar b. Khattab, but he said that there were no longer people like the members of that council. A validation e-mail has been sent to your e-mail address. [2] According to G. R. Hawting, he tried to continue the diplomatic policies of his father. When Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by Yazid's forces in the Battle of Karbala. According to Wellhausen, the story of abdication by Muawiya II is likely a Marwanid fabrication, sin… [36] A major aspect of his policy was the reinstatement of the jizya on the mawālī,[36] which alienated the mawālī in the aforementioned provinces. On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from the people of Medina as well. He set fire to their tents, tortured the women and baby children and rode over the body of Imam Husayn (a. s.) and others who had died fighting in Allah's way (shuhada') on horseback. He wrote to his cousin, the governor of Medina, Walid ibn Utba ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him of the death of Muawiya and instructing him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn Umar. In this brief battle, Yazid sent an Umayyad army to kill Hussain, as well as some of traveling companions, including his six-month old son, Ali Asghar. [33] Among the solutions of Yazid's predecessor to the fiscal burden were the withdrawal of the Syrians from Iraq, a halt on conquests and near elimination of grants to Umayyad princes, as well as an unrealized goal to withdraw Arab troops altogether from Transoxiana, the Iberian Peninsula and Cilicia. [2] He was possibly granted control of the region around Amman by Abd al-Malik. [42] Syriac sources further note that Yazid entrusted Maslama to execute the order and that the edict influenced the Byzantine emperor Leo III (r. 717–741) to enact his own iconoclastic policy in the Byzantine Empire. [36] Unlike the era of al-Hajjaj, however, Yazid applied this principle for the first time to Ifriqiya, Khurasan, Sind and the Iberian Peninsula. [38] The incident in Ifriqiya was a blow to the Caliphate's prestige in North Africa and served as a harbinger for the Berber Revolt in 740–743. He acted disrespectfully towards the Haram, Mosque of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) Muslim ibn ‘Uqbah the commander of this army of bloodthirsty men, entered the mosques and the Haram sanctuary of the noble Prophet on horseback in search of those who had sought refuge there, in total violation of the ancient custom they put everyone to the sword, the mosque and the Haram of the noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.), Umayyad people of the Arab–Byzantine wars, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 07:42. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. The cause of his death is unknown. His mother had slept with one of his father's slaves and the despicable, wine-drinking Yazid who was supposed to be the son of Mu‘awiyah was really the offspring of that slave. Bahdal. Thousands of women and unmarried girls were raped even within the area of the Prophet's mosque. He killed the offspring of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) When Yazid learnt that al-Waleed did not carry out his orders and let Imam Husayn (a.s.) leave Medina, he replaced him with the notorious Marwan as the Governor of Medina and Mecca. 7. After the army-commander and his vicious mercenaries had subdued the rebellion of the Muslims by their slaughter and rape of the inhabitants of Medina they forced those who survived the attack to make a pledge of allegiance to Yazid; after exacting this pledge under the threat of death they continued and increased their reign of terror. His father Mu‘awiyah had obtained power over the Muslim community through deceit and treachery. [1][34] According to Blankinship, the reforms favoring the mawālī may have been guided by Umar II's piety, but also a fiscal consideration: if equal treatment with the Arabs made the government popular with the mawālī it could translate into delegating an increased security role for the mawālī in their native provinces and their enthusiastic defense of the Caliphate's frontiers, thereby reducing the expense of deploying and garrisoning Arab troops. He committed such despicable acts during his rule (which lasted only three years and nine months) that he has been cursed by Allah and the people until the end of time. [18], Evading the pursuit of Umar's or Yazid's commanders, Ibn al-Muhallab made his way to Basra, the center of his family and Azd Uman tribe. [1] He rarely left Syria except for a number of visits to the Hejaz (western Arabia, home of the Islamic holy cities Mecca and Medina),[1] including once for the annual Hajj pilgrimage sometime between 715 and 717. In this place known as Harrah a heavy battle took place between the armies of truth and falsehood, many of the Muslims from Medina were killed. The palaces are conventionally held to have been built during his caliphate, though a number of archaeologists suggest Yazid began their construction before 720. Al-Waleed’s predecessor Marwan, who was banished by the Holy Prophet (S) and the first and the second Caliphs, was recalled to act as al-Waleed’s advisor. [31] According to the historian Julius Wellhausen, "the proscription of the whole of the prominent and powerful [Muhallabid] family, a measure hitherto unheard of in the history of the Umaiyids [sic], came like a declaration of war against the Yemen [faction] in general, and the corollary was that the government was degenerating into a Qaisite party-rule". Muawiya was the son of Yazid I and an unknown mother from the Kalb tribe. Mu'awiya b. Yazid's period of caliphate was very short. They prayed that Allah may deliver them of this corrupt dictator who was responsible for all the killing and tyranny. Like Mu‘awiyah and his bloodthirsty agents, Yazid and his corrupt followers did not shun any criminal act, how-ever disgusting or tyrannical. He left Medina in the morning, two days before the new moon of the month of Sha’ban in the year sixty of Hijra. She appealed to Yazid who replaced Abd al-Rahman with Abd al-Walid ibn Abdallah. [25] [28] His severed head was dispatched to the caliph, who sent it together with the stuffed skin of his father to Sicily as a warning. They were the same people who while claiming to be Muslims placed Ali (a. s.) under house arrest, killed his sons and tortured his faithful supporters. She is often confused with Umm Hashim Fakhita bint Abi Hashim, mother of Muawiya's half-brother Khalid ibn Yazid. Ibn az-Zubair also realized that the occasion provided the chance for him to grab power that he so long cherished. [27] Afterward, the Umayyad authorities pursued and killed many of the Muhallabids, including nine to fourteen boys who were sent to Yazid and executed by his order. "Praise be to God. [6][7] Yazid grew up with his maternal Kalbite tribesmen. After 'Ashura, Lady Zaynab (a) made a speech and called Yazid, a son of Tulaqa'. Some Shiite biographical sources have appealed to this report to show that Mu'awiya b. Yazid was a Shi'a. Anti-Umayyad groups began to gain power among the disaffected. His nomination in 676 (56 AH) by Muawiya was opposed by several prominent Muslims from the Hejaz.

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